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Tension developed in the muscle during resting condition is known as passive tension chronic gastritis mayo effective protonix 40mg. Tension developed in the muscle during isometric contraction is called total tension chronic gastritis diet mayo clinic purchase 40mg protonix. During stretching of the muscle beyond resting length gastritis muscle pain proven 20 mg protonix, there is reduction in the overlap between the actin and myosin filaments and the number of cross bridges gastritis mercola purchase protonix 20 mg. It is because already one action potential is in progress in the muscle during this period. Absolute Refractory Period Absolute refractory period is the period during which the muscle does not show any response at all, whatever may be the strength of stimulus. At every length, both passive tension and total tension are determined followed by calculation of active tension. All the values of active tension at different lengths are plotted to obtain the length-tension curve. Resting Length Resting length is the length of the muscle at which the active tension is maximum. Tension Vs Overlap of Myofilaments Length-tension relationship is explained on the basis of sliding of actin filaments over the myosin filaments during muscular contraction. The active tension is proportional to overlap between actin and myosin filaments in the sarcomere and the number of cross bridges formed between actin and myosin filaments. When the length of the muscle is less than the resting length, there is increase in the overlap between the actin and myosin filaments and the number of cross bridges. Relative Refractory Period Relative refractory period is the period, during which the muscle shows some response if the strength of stimulus is increased to maximum. Refractory Period in Skeletal Muscle In skeletal muscle, whole of the latent period is refractory period. Refractory Period in Cardiac Muscle In cardiac muscle, absolute refractory period extends throughout contraction period (0. And, relative refractory period extends during first half of relaxation period (about 0. Thus, the refractory period in cardiac muscle is very long compared to that of skeletal muscle. It is due to continuous discharge of impulses from gamma motor neurons in anterior gray horn of spinal cord. The gamma motor neurons in spinal cord are controlled by higher centers in brain (Chapter 157). Electrical potentials in a muscle (or any living tissue) are measured by using a cathode ray oscilloscope or computerized polygraph. It is also called membrane potential, transmembrane potential, transmembrane potential difference or trans membrane potential gradient. Electrical potential Chapter 31 t Changes during Muscular Contraction 189 When two electrodes are connected to a cathode ray oscilloscope through a suitable amplifier and placed over the surface of the muscle fiber, there is no potential difference, i. But, if one of the electrodes is inserted into the interior of muscle fiber, potential difference is observed across the sarcolemma (cell membrane). The condition of the muscle during resting mem brane potential is called polarized state. Ionic Basis of Resting Membrane Potential Development and maintenance of resting membrane potential in a muscle fiber or a neuron are carried out by movement of ions, which produce ionic imbalance across the cell membrane. This results in the development of more positivity outside and more negativity inside the cell. Sodium-potassium pump Sodium and potassium ions are actively transported in opposite directions across the cell membrane by means of an electrogenic pump called sodiumpotassium pump. Since more positive ions (cations) are pumped outside than inside, a net deficit of positive ions occurs inside the cell. Selective permeability of cell membrane Permeability of cell membrane depends largely on the transport channels.

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It takes the remains of digested food - that is gastritis diagnosis proven protonix 40 mg, food in which all the nutrients and minerals have been removed lymphocytic gastritis symptoms treatment generic 40 mg protonix, and prepares it for elimination gastritis diet °Ó­ŔŕŔ protonix 20mg. The Large Intestine and Its Functions From the small intestine chronic gastritis guideline safe 20 mg protonix, any remaining food wastes pass into the large intestine. The large intestine is a relatively wide tube that connects the small intestine with the anus. Like the small intestine, the large intestine also consists of three parts: the cecum (or caecum), colon, and rectum. As they pass through the colon, which is the second part of the large intestine, excess water is absorbed. Bacteria in the Large Intestine Trillions of bacteria normally live in the large intestine. Three of the most common diseases that affect the digestive system are food allergies, ulcers, and heartburn. Foodborne illnesses and food intolerance are also serious issues associated with the digestive system. In some instances, a food allergy can trigger anaphylaxis, which is an extremely severe reaction. Emergency medical treatment is critical for this condition, which left untreated, can lead to death. The stomach acid may eventually cause serious damage to the esophagus unless the problem is corrected. Eating a variety of the right types of foods promotes good health and provides energy for growth and activity. Nutrients are substances the body needs for energy, building materials, and control of body processes. There are six main classes of nutrients: carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, water, vitamins, and minerals. These six classes are categorized as macronutrients or micronutrients depending on how much of them the body needs. Macronutrients Nutrients the body needs in relatively large amounts are called macronutrients. Fiber, which is found in plant foods, cannot be digested but is needed for good health. Simple carbohydrates are small carbohydrates found in foods such as fruits and milk. Starch, which is a complex carbohydrate found in vegetables and grains, is made of thousands of glucose units bonded together. Any extra proteins in the diet not needed for this purpose are used for energy or stored as fat. Eating protein provides the amino acids for your cells to produce your own antibodies, muscle fibers and enzymes (as well as many other types of proteins). However, large amounts can be harmful, especially if they contain saturated fatty acids from animal foods. More about saturated and unsaturated fats can be found at Nutrition and Healthy Eating. Micronutrients Nutrients the body needs in relatively small amounts are called micronutrients. Vitamins play many roles in good health, ranging from maintaining good vision to helping blood clot. They include calcium, which helps form strong bones and teeth, and potassium, which is needed for normal nerve and muscle function.

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Absence of intrinsic factor in gastric juice causes deficiency of vitamin B12 gastritis diet coconut water quality protonix 20mg, leading to pernicious anemia (Chapter 14) gastritis vitamin c buy protonix 40 mg. Protects the stomach wall from irritation or mechanical injury gastritis gerd order 40mg protonix, by virtue of its high viscosity gastritis diet treatment infection generic protonix 40 mg. Prevents the digestive action of pepsin on the wall of the stomach, particularly gastric mucosa. Protects the gastric mucosa from hydrochloric acid of gastric juice because of its alkaline nature and its acidcombining power. When zymogen granule is secreted into stomach from chief cells, the granule is dissolved and pepsinogen is released into gastric juice. It combines with water to form carbonic acid in the presence of carbonic anhydrase. Carbonic acid is the most unstable compound and immediately splits into hydrogen ion and bicarbonate ion. To compensate the loss of chloride ion, the bicarbonate ion from parietal cell enters the blood and combines with sodium to form sodium bicarbonate. Pavlov Pouch Pavlov pouch is a small part of the stomach that is incompletely separated from the main portion and made into a small baglike pouch. Pavlov pouch was designed by the Russian scientist Pavlov, in a dog during his studies on conditioned reflexes. Procedure To prepare a Pavlov pouch, stomach of an anesthetized dog is divided into a larger part and a smaller part by making an incomplete incision. This outlet is brought out through the abdominal wall and used to drain the pouch. Nerve supply of Pavlov pouch Pavlov pouch receives parasympathetic (vagus) nerve fibers through isthmus and sympathetic fibers through blood vessels. Use of Pavlov pouch Pavlov pouch is used to demonstrate the different phases of gastric secretion, particularly the cephalic phase and used to demonstrate the role of vagus in cephalic phase. It is completely separated from main portion of stomach by cutting the isthmus without damaging blood vessels. Thus, Heidenhain pouch does not have parasympathetic supply, but the sym pathetic fibers remain intact through the blood vessels. Uses of Heidenhain pouch Heidenhain pouch is useful to demonstrate the role of sympathetic nerve and the hormonal regulation of gastric secretion after vagotomy (cutting the vagus nerve). Bickel Pouch In this, even the sympathetic nerve fibers are cut by removing the blood vessels. Uses of Bickel pouch Bickel pouch is used to demonstrate the role of hormones in gastric secretion. Farrel and Ivy Pouch Farrel and Ivy pouch is prepared by completely removing the Bickel pouch from the stomach and transplanting it in the subcutaneous tissue of abdominal wall or thoracic wall in the same animal. Uses of Farrel and Ivy pouch this pouch is useful to study the role of hormones during gastric and intestinal phases of gastric secretion. It is another experimental procedure devised by Pavlov to demons trate the regulation of gastric secretion. Esophagus is transversely cut and the cut ends are drawn out through the hole in the neck iii. This experimental procedure is supported by the preparation of Pavlov pouch with a fistula from the stomach. The animal is used for experimental purpose after a week, when healing is completed. Advantage of sham feeding Sham feeding is useful to demonstrate the secretion of gastric juice during cephalic phase. In the same animal after vagotomy, sham feeding does not induce gastric secretion. During this phase, gastric secretion occurs even without the presence of food in stomach.

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