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The presence of those troops helped to undermine slavery pulse pressure 50-60 effective olmesartan 40mg, which caused support for abolition to grow heart attack get me going extended version safe olmesartan 10 mg. He expected leaders Page 785 Page 785 Chapter Seventeen: reConStruCtion there to accept the plan given the small number of slaves in the state phase 4 arrhythmia best olmesartan 10 mg. Once people heard about the proposal hypertension jnc 8 classification safe olmesartan 20mg, some began to worry that emancipation would in turn produce demands for political rights. Supporters could not convince opponents otherwise, and Delaware retained slavery until the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment in December 1865. Early on, leaders suggested any attempt by the Lincoln administration to undermine slavery would affect their loyalty to the Union. Throughout the war, the planter class retained political power and no opposition movement emerged to challenge that control. The Emancipation Proclamation and the enlistment of runaways in the Union army weakened slavery, but did not destroy it in Kentucky. Masters only freed their slaves because of the Thirteenth Amendment, which the state never ratified. In 1863, supporters of immediate action won a majority of seats in the legislature because the army required all voters to take a loyalty oath, thereby curbing planter power. Lincoln privately and publicly supported immediate emancipation if the convention chose to move in that direction. It also cut the power of the planters in state politics, limited future voting to those who took a stringent loyalty oath, and created a tax-supported school system. However, it excluded the black population from political rights and access to education. By the end of the year, voters approved the new constitution, but the future of the freedmen in the state was far from certain. Both conservatives and radicals pushed Lincoln to back their position, while the president tried to find a policy to reconcile their differences. In 1863, conservative unionists, who tended to be slaveholders, encouraged the adoption of gradual compensated emancipation. In response, radicals, who tended to be non-slaveholders, launched an effort to promote an immediate end to slavery. The Page 786 Page 786 Chapter Seventeen: reConStruCtion new constitution provided for an immediate end to slavery and granted the freedmen some political and educational rights. In order to secure its ratification, the radicals relied on laws restricting the political participation of Confederate sympathizers. While Lincoln ascribed publicly to the Ten Percent Plan, he was more than willing in these states to be flexible on the means of restoration. Both Virginia and Arkansas established loyal governments in 1864 under the auspices of the Ten Percent Plan. Loyalists in Virginia held an election for representatives and then a convention to draft a new constitution. Adopted in April, it barred slavery, restricted suffrage to white men, and created a system of public education for whites. Lincoln hoped the situation would be better in Arkansas because residents in the northern regions seemed more likely to declare their loyalty. Nevertheless, unionists there bypassed any elections under the Ten Percent Plan and moved directly to creating a constitution. The delegates proposed to end slavery gradually through a system of indentured servitude and to limit suffrage to the white population. Although neither Virginia nor Arkansas followed the Ten Percent Plan exactly, Lincoln recognized the new governments as the legitimate authority in both states in order to show the success of his restoration policy. While Johnson convinced Lincoln to exempt Tennessee from the Emancipation Proclamation, the issue still divided the state. Some people renewed their commitment to slavery, and others became more vocal in their opposition to it. Johnson eventually sided with those who wanted to abolish slavery, and he took action to undermine the conservatives by expanding on the loyalty oath outlined in the Ten Percent Page 787 Page 787 Chapter Seventeen: reConStruCtion Plan. In Tennessee, potential voters had to declare loyalty to the Union, vow to fight the Confederacy, and support the end of slavery. His approach to restoration and amnesty did little to support the creation of a pro-Union government in 1864.

Results were then summed to determine the mean value and the 95 percent confidence intervals blood pressure chart pictures purchase 40mg olmesartan. Data from the literature exist for many of the interventions that are analyzed; for Thailand and Peru blood pressure 100 over 60 proven olmesartan 20mg, data on the cost of policy change are missing pulse pressure 57 quality olmesartan 10 mg, and for Peru pulse pressure gap purchase olmesartan 20 mg, the cost of condom distribution is missing. Structural interventions Mass media targeted to vulnerable population - - - - 100,000f - 0. Structural interventions - Mass media targeted to vulnerable population Changes in laws or policies - - - 100,000f Model 1: 128 Model 2d: 4. Predicted for the average number of contacts in one year observed in data collected. In cases for which data from a country are available, they are used for the base case assessment, and the model is used for uncertainty ranges. In many cases, the uncertainty ranges from the models include the base case estimate using literature from a particular country. The model for outreach through peer educators is the exception, likely because the model has been used to predict costs for an efficient level of contacts. Total costs are calculated as the linear sum of target population * coverage * unit costs for all interventions except for the distribution of condoms and lubricants. For the distribution of condoms and lubricants, costs were calculated as target population * number of partners per year * number of sex acts per partner * adjustment for wastage rate by users * coverage * unit costs. Excludes interventions that were more costly but less effective than others (dominated interventions) and those with higher incremental cost-effectiveness ratios than more effective options (weakly dominated interventions). Discussion the results of these analyses have implications for costs and costing exercises, cost-effectiveness, and decision making, which are discussed in turn below. Clearly, many of these studies were answering different questions from the one posed here; this book tried to accommodate such differences by explicitly including variables in its models to account for these methodological differences. However, these differences do not always lend themselves to perfect classification or quantification, and therefore some measurement error will be present in the regressions. The purpose of the regressions was not to test if these methodological differences have a statistically significant impact on the cost estimates, but to predict as well as possible what unit costs might be in different countries; therefore this measurement error, while not ideal, might be tolerable. Furthermore, the purpose of the regression models is not to interpret the coefficients; variables were included or excluded based on their ability to explain available data (and therefore to serve as predictors for areas where data are not currently available) and only secondarily because of theoretical considerations. The beta coefficients in the models may not reflect the isolated effects of the variables they are associated with, but may be subject to confounding, and the like. Nevertheless, the signs of the beta coefficients for most of the main variables were in the directions expected. This problem is most clearly highlighted in the models where number of contacts has been included as a variable. What the average of "the number of annual contacts at a facility/program" will be for all facilities or programs in a nation is unknown, as is how this average might change with different national coverage levels. For the models where this variable is not available, this problem remains, although it cannot be modeled explicitly. Moreover, national-level variables that may have an influence on unit costs have not been included, such as the extent of donor participation or length of time since starting service provision (Over 2010), in part because these variables may not apply to a particular setting and in part because data are not available for many years or countries. Again, this omission may bias the results when predicting for a particular country. Modeling Cost and Cost-Effectiveness 271 As noted previously, the results presented here are far from conclusive, and interpreting the beta coefficients in the models is problematic. However, the models for the outreach intervention do show that different target populations (for example, male only vs. This finding does not mean that the differences in the unit costs are important: the magnitude of the differences that is important depends on the question that is being asked (for example, is it important when determining a budget vs. Such research could help make results more generalizable (initial hypotheses may include the following, which could all influence the unit costs: the outreach techniques needed for different programs, the number of contacts that peer outreach workers can establish in one location, and the need for lubricants). The difficulty is translating that difference into different unit costs at varying levels of national coverage.

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Nonmedical use of pain relievers refer to any form of prescription pain relievers that were not prescribed for the person or that the person took only for the experience or feeling they caused lower blood pressure quickly for test generic olmesartan 10mg. County estimates are inputted using the estimate for the Substance Abuse Treatment Planning Region in which they belong hypertension nursing teaching best 10 mg olmesartan. Discussing Sexual Health with Your Patients Included on the following pages is A Guide for the Healthcare Professionals: Discussing Sexual Health with Your Patients blood pressure response to exercise quality 20 mg olmesartan. Tips for Discussing Sexual Health with Your Patient Many patients have sexual health questions and want your insight arterial doppler trusted olmesartan 20 mg, but are hesitant about initiating the conversation. By asking all your adult and adolescent patients a few essential questions, you help to remove the stigma around discussing sex and normalize these discussions. Refne your skills at facilitating such talks by practicing the following strategies: Assess your own comfort by discussing sex with various patient groups and identify any biases that you may have. If you are uncomfortable talking about sex and sexuality, your patient will be too. Make your patient feel comfortable by establishing a rapport before asking sensitive questions. Use neutral and inclusive terms such as "partner" and posing your questions in a non-judgmental manner. Avoid assumptions about your patient based on age, appearance, marital status, or any other factor. Rephrase your questions or briefy explain why you are asking a question if a patient seems offended or reluctant to answer. Ensure that you and your patient share an understanding of the terms being used to avoid confusion. If a partner, relative, or caregiver is in the room, ask that person to step into the waiting room. Since sexual health is very important to overall health, I ask all my patients these questions. For a complete copy of the guide and other resources, visit: Nationalcoalitionforsexualhealth. Healthcare Provider Resources Resources for Uninsured Patients: Enroll in a healthcare plan. When ordering Hepatitis C tests for patients insured through Medicare: Medicare covers annual hepatitis C screening only for "high-risk individuals. Per Medicare guidance the initial encounter/test requisition for hepatitis C tests must include diagnosis code Z72. Follow-up encounters/tests for annual hepatitis C testing should include diagnosis codes Z72. Document the total face-to-face time of the service, the statement that more than 50% of the time was spent in discussion and the nature of the discussion. Gilead Advancing Access Application Included on the following pages is the Gilead Advancing Access Application. If the patient has a secondary insurance, check the box to indicate this and fax a copy of the secondary insurance card. If there is no household income, indicate how the patient/household is being supported. Mail or fax the completed Enrollment Form and all required documentation to the Advancing Access program at the address or fax number below. You may complete an electronic enrollment form online at advancingaccessconsent. Information may be provided to clinicians, social workers or family members when required to complete the enrollment process and coordinate patient assistance, and to credit bureaus to determine program eligibility with your consent below. Incomplete forms slow the review process and, in some cases, may require a patient to reapply for the program. Third-party reimbursement is affected by a range of factors; therefore, Gilead Sciences, Inc. I certify that this prescription medication is medically necessary for the patient and that it will be used as directed. As part of this process, Gilead and its agents and contractors (collectively, "Gilead") will need to obtain, review, use and disclose my personal and medical information as described below. Persons Authorized to Disclose My Information: My healthcare providers, including any pharmacy that fills my prescription medication, and any health plans or programs that provide me healthcare benefits. I am entitled to a copy of this signed authorization, which expires the earlier of two (2) years from the date it is signed by me or other time period required under the laws of the state in which I reside.

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The first proclamation was similar to that issued by Lincoln in December hypertension symptoms high blood pressure proven 20 mg olmesartan, 1863 blood pressure 70 over 40 best 20mg olmesartan, with the exception of the last category heart attack remind for you best olmesartan 40mg. In order for states to be readmitted to the union blood pressure is determined by purchase olmesartan 10 mg, they must repudiate their war debts, accept the Thirteenth Amendment, declare secession null and void, and draft a constitution. The second proclamation appointed a provisional governor for North Carolina and called for the state to create a constitution. In the ensuing weeks, Johnson made similar offers to six additional southern states and recognized the Lincoln-sponsored governments of Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee. By the fall of 1865, "regular civil administrations" were thereby functioning in all of the former Confederate states except Texas. When Congress convened in December 1865, ten of the eleven Confederate states had therefore been readmitted to the Union. None of the constitutions deviated from this instruction, so no state granted blacks the right to vote. Southerners had braced themselves for a harsh retaliation, especially in light of the earlier utterances of the president, and at first, they could not believe their good fortune. On September 11, 1865, a delegation of Southerners met with the president to express their thanks for his "desire and intention to sustain Southern rights in the Union. Some began to argue about war debts, and, Page 797 Page 797 Chapter Seventeen: reConStruCtion while some declared secession null and void, others merely "repealed" their articles of secession. And if this were not enough to alarm the Radical Republicans, old Confederate leaders were elected to the state constitutional conventions, and the states even sent ex-Confederate generals, colonels, and congressmen to Washington, among these including the Vice President of the Confederacy, Alexander Stephens. The worst offense of the newly reconstructed states, however, was the creation of Black Codes in every state; these were based on the preemancipation Slave Codes. Designed to create a supply of cheap labor and to prevent integration of the races, these codes regulated every aspect of the lives of "blacks, mulattos, or other persons of color. But here the rights of the freemen ended, as the Codes denied basic rights, including the following: the right of freedmen to bear arms or vote; serve on juries; co mingle with whites; leave the premises of an employer without permission; own property except in designated areas of a state, city, or town; and testify in court except in cases involving other blacks. According to the Black Code of Florida, for example, any black man guilty of sexual relations with a white woman would be fined $1000 and whipped (not to exceed 39 lashes); the woman would be similarly punished. In Mississippi, the punishment was even harsher; any person convicted of intermarriage would be sentenced to life in prison. Because a primary goal of the Codes was to provide a constant source of subservient labor in the post-emancipation South, most contained sections dealing with free labor. All terms between laborer and employer were spelled out in contracts that specified the number of hours to be worked and amount of wages to be paid. Most Codes also contained clauses that children of freedpeople could be arbitrarily bound out by the state as apprentices; some of these listed obligations that the master owed the apprentice such rights as education, religious instruction, and housing; some did not. As early Page 798 Page 798 Chapter Seventeen: reConStruCtion as 1863, Frederick Douglass, an abolitionist and former slave, warned that emancipation was only the first step toward black equality, and his words were echoed by Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner, the authors of a radical plan of reconstruction, as they urged integration be adopted in southern society. But the fact is that the majority of Northerners were no more in favor of racial equality than were those in the South. In the North, only seven percent of the black population was allowed to vote and that was in the five New England states. All public facilities were segregated, including schools, prisons, hospitals, churches, and cemeteries; also, most states had housing and job restrictions. Moreover, many northern states still had laws against the immigration of blacks from state to state. But if Northerners, like Southerners, were not in favor of social and economic equality, most did want a reconstruction that would bring a better life for southern blacks, one in which they would enjoy equality before the law, freedom of movement, the right to sit on juries, and like punishment for like crimes. The election of Confederate leadership to positions of importance in state and national offices was bad enough, but the Black Codes looked very much like a return to slavery. Blaine, then Speaker of the House of Representatives, wrote in the early 1870s, "If the Southern men had intended as their one special desirable aim, to inflame public opinion of the North against them, they would have proceeded precisely as they did. Although the committee was not controlled by the Radicals, it did have among its membership one of the most influential Radicals in Congress: Thaddeus Stevens of Pennsylvania. Stevens and Charles Sumner, who was the Republican leader in the Senate, were the most outspoken proponents of radical reconstruction. The irascible Stevens made clear his position on Presidential Reconstruction when he remarked, "The punishment of traitors has been wholly ignored by a treacherous Executive and a sluggish Congress.

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It was heritable and permanent arrhythmia alliance quality 40mg olmesartan, not temporary blood pressure normal numbers 10mg olmesartan, meaning generations of black people were born into it and passed their enslaved status onto their children blood pressure number meanings proven olmesartan 10 mg. Enslaved people were not recognized as human beings but as property that could be mortgaged hypertension differential diagnosis 40mg olmesartan, traded, bought, sold, used as collateral, given as a gift and disposed of violently. As the abolitionist William Goodell wrote in 1853, ``If any thing founded on falsehood might be called a science, we might add the system of American slavery to the list of the strict sciences. They were barred from learning to read and restricted from meeting privately in groups. They had no claim to their own children, who could be bought, sold and traded away from them on auction blocks alongside furniture and cattle or behind storefronts that advertised ``Negroes for Sale. Enslavers could rape or murder their Currier & Ives, via the Library of Congress 17 The 1619 Project A postcard showing the scene at the murder of Allen Brooks, an African-American laborer who was accused of attempted rape. He was dragged through the streets around the Dallas County Courthouse and lynched on March 3, 1910. They could be worked to death, and often were, in order to produce the highest profits for the white people who owned them. As Samuel Johnson, an English writer and Tory opposed to American independence, quipped, ``How is it that we hear the loudest yelps for liberty among the drivers of Negroes? By 1776, Britain had grown deeply conflicted over its role in the barbaric institution that had reshaped the Western Hemisphere. This would have upended the economy of the colonies, in both the North and the South. The wealth and prominence that allowed Jefferson, at just 33, and the other founding fathers to believe they could successfully break off from one of the mightiest empires in the world came from the dizzying profits generated by chattel slavery. In other words, we may never have revolted against Britain if the founders had not understood that slavery empowered them to do so; nor if they had not believed that independence was required in order to ensure that slavery would continue. Instead, he blamed the king of England for forcing the institution of slavery on the unwilling colonists and called the trafficking in human beings a crime. Yet neither Jefferson nor most of the founders intended to abolish slavery, and in the end, they struck the passage. Similarly, 11 years later, when it came time to draft the Constitution, the framers carefully constructed a document that preserved and protected slavery without ever using the word. In the texts in which they were making the case for freedom to the world, they did not want to explicitly enshrine their hypocrisy, so they sought to hide it. Six deal directly with the enslaved and their enslavement, as the historian David Waldstreicher has written, and five more hold implications for slavery. The Constitution protected the ``property' of those who enslaved black people, prohibited the federal government from intervening to end the importation of enslaved Africans for a term of 20 years, allowed Congress to mobilize the militia to put down insurrections by the enslaved and forced states that had outlawed slavery to turn over enslaved people 18 August 18, 2019 who had run away seeking refuge. Like many others, the writer and abolitionist Samuel Byron called out the deceit, saying of the Constitution, ``The words are dark and ambiguous; such as no plain man of common sense would have used, [and] are evidently chosen to conceal from Europe, that in this enlightened country, the practice of slavery has its advocates among men in the highest stations. The shameful paradox of continuing chattel slavery in a nation founded on individual freedom, scholars today assert, led to a hardening of the racial caste system. This ideology, reinforced not just by laws but by racist science and literature, maintained that black people were subhuman, a belief that allowed white Americans to live with their betrayal. Diamond, white Americans, whether they engaged in slavery or not, ``had a considerable psychological as well as economic investment in the doctrine of black inferiority. The Supreme Court enshrined this thinking in the law in its 1857 Dred Scott decision, ruling that black people, whether enslaved or free, came from a ``slave' race. This made them inferior to white people and, therefore, incompatible with American democracy. Democracy was for citizens, and the ``Negro race,' the court ruled, was ``a separate class of persons,' which the founders had ``not regarded as a portion of the people or citizens of the Government' and had ``no rights which a white man was bound to respect. If black people could not ever Left: From the DeGolyer Library, Southern Methodist University, Dallas. In February that year, Woodard, a decorated Army veteran, was severely beaten by the police, leaving him blind. It was one of the few times that black people had ever been invited to the White House as guests. The Civil War had been raging for more than a year, and black abolitionists, who had been increasingly pressuring Lincoln to end slavery, must have felt a sense of great anticipation and pride.

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